Thrombosis is the development of a blood clot within a blood vessel that prevents blood flow through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel is broken, the body releases platelets and fibrin to form a blood clot and prevent blood loss.

In veins or arteries, thrombosis can occur.

Venous thrombosis: leads to blockage of the affected part of the body Arterial thrombosis: it affects the blood supply and allows the artery to cause tissue damage.

Specific thrombosis forms depending on the affected vessel type 1. Venous thrombosis • Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis• Deep vein thrombosis• Budd-Chiari syndrome• Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis • Cavernous sinus thrombosis 2. Thrombosis of the heart• Stroke• Myocardial infarction 3. Limb ischemia Prevention: if there are no problems with bleeding, the use of heparin following surgery is standard preventive treatment.

Prevention: There are multiple thrombosis prevention approaches, including· Anticoagulation· Thrombolysis· Surgery· Endovascular therapy· Endovascular therapy


Hemostasis and Thrombosis | Coagulation and Its Regulation | Fibrinolysis and Its Regulation | Platelet Structure and Function | Thrombohemorrhagic Disorders | Therapy, New Directions and Complications in Thrombohemorrhagic Disorders


Acute Coronary Syndromes

Coronary arteries are the part of heart muscles, in which the blood flow decreases due to acute coronary syndromes results in failed to function properly. Most common symptoms associated with ACS are chest pain, nausea, sweating and diabetes mellitus in older patients.

ACS is most commonly connected with three clinical manifestations: These types are names as per the appearance of Electrocardiogram (ECG). 1. ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, 30%), 2. Non ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI, 25%) 3. Unstable angina (38%)


Different diagnosis methods

• Electrocardiogram

• Imaging and blood tests

• Prediction scores



Acute coronary syndrome often reflects a degree of damage to the coronaries by atherosclerosis. Primary prevention of atherosclerosis is controlling the risk factors: healthy eating, exercise, treatment for hypertension and diabetes, avoiding smoking and controlling cholesterol levels; in patients with significant risk factors, aspirin has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Secondary prevention is discussed in myocardial infarction.


After a ban on smoking in all enclosed public places was introduced in Scotland in March 2006, there was a 17% reduction in hospital admissions for acute coronary syndrome. 67% of the decrease occurred in non-smokers.


People with presumed ACS are typically treated with aspirin, clopidogrel or ticagrelor, nitroglycerin, and if the chest discomfort persists morphine


Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Heath | Pathogenesis: Acute Coronary Syndrome | Molecular Mechanisms: Acute Coronary Syndrome | Immune System in Acute Coronary Syndrome | Myocardial Cell Death and Regeneration | Pharmacogenomics | Acute Ischemic Heart Disease | Echocardiography in Acute Coronary Syndrome | Nuclear Cardiology Techniques in Acute Coronary Syndrome | Plaque Passivation and Endothelial Therapy | The Modern Cardiac Unit | Antiplatelet Therapy | Anticoagulants