Congestive Heart Failure

Congestive heart failure (CHF), commonly referred to as heart failure, is a medical disorder when the heart is unable to effectively pump blood to satisfy the needs of the body. It happens when the heart's pumping power becomes weakened, causing an accumulation of fluid in the lungs and other body regions. Congestion and other symptoms may result from this fluid buildup.

The two primary varieties of congestive heart failure are as follows:

  1. Systolic Heart Failure: In this kind, the heart muscle weakens and loses its ability to contract enough to contract effectively to efficiently pump blood from the heart and into the circulation with each heartbeat. The amount of blood pumped out with each contraction is decreased as a result, which also affects the ejection fraction.
  2. Diastolic Heart Failure: In this kind, the heart's muscle stiffens and loses some of its flexibility, making it challenging for the heart to relax and fill with blood in between beats. Although the ejection fraction may be maintained, this decreases the heart's capacity to pump blood effectively.

Congestive heart failure has a number of common causes and risk factors, including:

  • Coronary artery disease (obstruction of the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle).
  • High blood pressure (hypertension).
  • Heart valve disorders.
  • Cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle).
  • Chronic lung diseases.
  • Diabetes.
  • Obesity.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption.
  • Smoking.
  • Certain medications and substances (e.g., chemotherapy drugs, cocaine).
  • Family history of heart disease.

Congestive heart failure symptoms might differ, but frequently include:

  • Shortness of breath, especially during physical activity or when lying flat.
  • Fatigue and weakness.
  • Swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, or abdomen (edema).
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat.
  • Persistent cough or wheezing, often with pink or white mucus.
  • Sudden weight gain due to fluid retention.


Epidemiology & pathophysiology of heart failure | Differential Diagnosis of Congestive heart failure | Pharmacologic theraphy of Heart Failure | Clinical approach to acute heart failure | Clinical approach to chronic heart failure | The diagnosis and management of Congestive heart failure

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