Atherosclerosis

The condition known as atherosclerosis results from the buildup of fatty deposits, cholesterol, calcium, and other chemicals on the inner walls of the arteries, which causes the arteries to narrow and stiffen. The word "plaque" is used to characterize this collection. As the plaque accumulates and hardens, blood flow through the affected arteries may become reduced over time.

Here's how atherosclerosis typically develops:

  • Injury or Damage: Excessive blood pressure, smoking, excessive cholesterol levels, and inflammation are just a few of the conditions that can harm the endothelium, the inner lining of arteries.
  • Plaque Formation: The body's natural mending process starts in response to this damage. At the site of the injury, white blood cells and other chemicals, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, begin to assemble.
  • Plaque Buildup: Plaque builds up inside the arterial walls as a result of the accumulated substances, mainly cholesterol, calcium, and cellular debris. The plaque can be soft (fatty) or hard (calcified).
  • Narrowing of Arteries: As the plaque thickens, the artery's lumen becomes smaller, decreasing blood flow to vital organs and tissues.
  • Complications: Angina (chest pain), heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral artery disease (narrowing of arteries in the extremities) are only a few of the issues that can result from atherosclerosis. Smaller arteries may get blocked if a piece of the plaque breaks off and enters the bloodstream, creating life-threatening medical problems

Subtopics

Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis | Chemokines and Atherosclerosis: A critical Assessment of Therapeutic Targets | Adhesion Molecules and Atherosclerosis | Cytokines and Atherosclerosis | Toll-Like Receptors in Atherosclerosis| PPAR-Based Therapies for the Management of Atherosclerosis | Pentraxins in Vascular Pathology | Metalloproteinase, the Endothelium and Atherosclerosis | Cathepsins in Atherosclerosis | The Plasmin system and Atherosclerosis | Mast Cell Proteases and Atherosclerosis | NADPH Oxidase and Atherosclerosis | Hene Oxygenase-1 and Atherosclerosis | Platelets: Role in Atherogenesis and thrombosis in Coronary Artery Disease

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